Manual Addendum: AI & Mechanics


• NCTR (Non-Cooperative Target Recognition) for select radar systems has been added, enabling active type/class-identification of air targets. See here for introduction to the technology:
NCTR as modeled in Command is broken into two techniques:
– JEM: Jet engine modulation (aka fan blade counting). This is simpler to process and more widespread but works only within a frontal arc of 15 degress offset from the target’s front (so that the fan blades are visible to the radar).
– NBILST: Narrow-beam Interleaved Search & Track (aka synthetic pseudo-imaging). This is far more demanding computationally and is possible only with phased-array radars, but can work regardless of target aspect.
Interestingly enough, even some quite old radar systems (like Square Pair on SA-5 batteries) have an NCTR ability. However, because of its manual/semi-automated nature (the operator literally looks on raw radar return modulation data on an oscilloscope) the classification time varies highly with operator proficiency. In modern systems the highly automated nature of the process (point the radar at the target and wait) means that crew skill is irrelevant.
When a target is classified using NCTR a relevant message is added to the message log. • Damage repair rates (for sub-systems) have been increased and messages are now provided when a subsystem is repaired for a heavier to a lighter state of damage or fully restored.

* When examining subsystems damage on a unit (Damage Control window), the different degrees of subsystem damage (light, medium, heavy) are represented by different colors (yellow, orange and orange-red). Destroyed systems retain the red color.

* Numerous fixes and tweaks to damage modelling have been implemented including ARM impacts, cluster munitions, proximity blast damage, depth charge damage & duds etc.

• Aircraft & submarines have more realistic dive rates.

• Ships can now effectively use semi-active SAMs in anti-surface mode, as they are taking terminal illumination concerns into account during pre-fire checks.

• Refined acoustic reverberation modifiers for sonars. Now the sonar’s tech level (more modern sets are affected less) and operating frequency (lower-frequency sets suffer the most) also play a part in determining degradation due to reverberation from shallow water or under-ice conditions.

• Strategic submarines now actively evade not only weapon contacts but also potential sub & surface threats in proximity.

• New doctrine option: Use SAMs in anti-surface mode (or not).

• New patrol type: Sea Control. This type effectively combines the targeting criteria of the ASuW-Naval and ASW patrol. Units assigned to this patrol type will target anything on the sea surface and below it.

• New doctrine option: Engage targets of opportunity (default is NO). When enabled, a unit will target and engage any contact for which it has suitable weaponry (at range up to 2x of max suitable weapon range), regardless of its mission tasking.

• Floating mines can now be detected by visual sensors (incl. eyeballs) on ships and aircraft who fly lower than 150m/450ft and slower than 200kts. Perfect-conditions detection range is 300 meters but actual detection range can be significantly lower depending on lighting, weather etc.

• There are now 11 pre-defined cloud cover profiles. The mouse pointer has been updated with more information on the clouds so that the player can adjust operations accordingly. Some profiles have two layers of clouds which opens the door for some interesting scenarios. It is now possible to operate underneath clouds, over clouds, inside clouds, and visibility through cloud layers depends on cloud density. The profiles are:

  • Thick fog 0-2k ft, solid cloud cover 7-36k ft
  • Thin fog 0-2k ft, solid cloud cover 7-36k ft
  • Solid middle clouds 7-16k ft, moderate high clouds 30-36k ft
  • Moderate middle clouds 7-16k ft, light high clouds 27-30k ft
  • Moderate high clouds 25-28k ft
  • Moderate middle clouds 7-16k ft
  • Moderate low clouds 2-7k ft
  • Light high clouds 20-23k ft
  • Light middle clouds 10-16k ft
  • Light low clouds 5-7k ft
  • Clear sky

* Offboard sonar sensors (e.g. towed arrays & VDS) not only have their powerplant own-noise modifiers halved, but also get a further reduction as per the existing thermal layer and deep sound channel modifiers on sound propagation. This makes these sensors even more potent, especially when they hang on the other side of the thermal layer than their carrier platforms.

• The AI in ships & surfaced submarines can now engage incoming SAMs in ASM mode. (Player-issued attacks on SAMs are still deliberately ignored).

* Significant improvements to ABM/ASAT intercept logics:

  • Units with ABMs/ASATs target & begin tracking ballistic & orbital targets at much larger distances (to compensate for the very fast closure speed). This allows taking shots at the maximum intercept range.
  • Additional pre-fire checks for mandatory datalinks. If a mandatory datalink connection cannot be established, the firing sequence is aborted rather than launching the weapon “blind”. (This is critical for ABMs but also benefits other weapon types with mandatory datalinks).

* New major feature: Proficiency levels

  • Proficiency modifiers are applied either on a side level (on the “Add/Edit Sides” window in ScenEdit mode) or at the individual unit level (see here: ) and can affect a wide number of factors. The available levels are Novice, Cadet, Regular, Veteran & Ace. Default proficiency level for each side is Regular.

• The weapon endgame messages have been updated to display the information of these modifiers.

• OODA values are affected by proficiency levels. Novice crews take twice the nominal OODA value to execute their targeting process while ace crews beat even the nominal best-case value (all other levels in-between).

*  Radars able to detect mobile ground units are limited by target speed. A halted tank platoon for example is much harder to pick up than one on the move. Radars with progressively higher frequency (NATO J/K/L/M bands) get extra bonus on this as their higher frequency allows them to pick out even low-speed or static targets. (Not coincidentally, such seekers feature prominently on weapons like Longbow-Hellfire, Brimstone etc. which are optimized for engaging mobile targets.)

* “Submarine Datum” contact:  If an inbound torpedo is detected where no submarine contact is held, a presumed submarine contact is auto-generated on the assumption that the weapon came from somewhere. The initial AoU for the presumed sub contact has a 10nm radius and expands with time as with normal detections. Likewise, if a sub-launched missile is detected immediately after launch (within 1nm of its firing submarine) then a sub contact is generated with a 1nm-radius AoU (remember how “Operation Doolittle” in RSR went horribly wrong?). This helps surface/sub forces under sub attack to respond quickly to the attack even without having positively detected the attacker (and hopefully kills the player “sub sniping” cheat).

* A long-standing bug on the “Unit enters area” trigger has been fixed: it was firing for every moment at which a unit was in the area (so if it was chained to a repeatable event, the event was firing continuously). Now it fires only when the unit actually steps into the area from outside.

* Additional factor for ship gunnery: Ship size. Large ships are very stable platforms for unguided weapon fire (guns, rockets, lasers etc.) even during heavy seas, while smaller craft face progressively more severe aiming problems (even with advanced fire-control directors) as the weather worsens.

* Torpedoes can now be fired to their maximum kinematic range instead of 6/8nm. So if you really want to e.g. fire a Mk48 out to a target 25nm away because Jane’s says that’s the max range, now you can. (Just don’t blame anyone if the target easily outruns it or if the firing solution at that range is so poor that the torp misses outright). The firing behavior is configurable as a doctrine setting (so it can be applied to side-, mission-, group- or unit-level), and can be set to apply only for manual (i.e. player-initiated) shots only (so the AI remains conservative), both manual and AI shots, or none.

* Major new AI/Doctrine feature: Weapon Release Authorization / Weapon Control Status (WRA/WCS). See here for details:

* AAW missiles attacking small-or-larger size ships/facilities disable their proximity (airburst) fuzes and rely on direct impact instead. Primary damage delivery is through impact kinetic energy.

* Sub battery recharge rate has been significantly increased. Also now the recharge rate is maximum when creeping, and reduces as throttle setting increases.


NEW IN v1.08

* New weapon type: Anti-torpedo torpedoes and related torpedo-warning systems. (The player can fire these manually but by default the AI handles them just like with anti-missile weapons)

* New weapon type: Enhanced fragmentation warhead (aka “superfrag”). Examples: M30A2 MLRS Alternate Warhead, CBU-107 PAW.

* New weapon type: Contact explosive – sabotage & suicide subtypes. Sabotage allows simulating e.g. Tanya blowing a radar station (obligatory Red Alert reference: check). Suicide explosive allows modelling kamikaze units (e.g. the attack on USS Cole).

* New “ship” type: Mobile Offshore Base (aka “Battle Island”). Contrary to aircraft carriers, a MOB can also operate land-based aircraft (e.g. large transports).

* Significant speed improvement on large scenarios.

* Uncertainty areas for long-range passive detections (SOSUS, ESM etc.) are more accurate and reliable.

* Subs always recharge their batteries when at periscope depth or shallower. They are also smarter about not running after targets they have no chance of catching up, and very their approach speed against viable targets more intelligently.

* UNREP is performed at a realistic pace (1 item every 2 minutes per connecting line), and ships being replenished do not overload their first compatible weapon mount.

* Numerous tweaks to damage modelling related to light-caliber, very high-ROF automatic weapons.

NEW IN v1.09

* New major weapon feature: Nuclear detonations now produce a broadband EMP wave.

a) Effects radius & intensity: The radius is independent of yield and hinges mostly on LOS and whether the detonation is within the atmosphere, in the stratosphere or in near/outer space.

  • In the atmosphere: The radiation is absorbed quite heavily by the atmosphere and intensity falls linearly with distance. Maximum range is a bit longer than maximum blast range.
  • In the stratosphere: Part of the energy escapes to space while another part is trapped on the troposphere upper layer, forming an “EMP blanket”. Absorption is much less severe so the max range is much larger.
  • Near/outer space: All the energy headed towards earth is refracted through the atmosphere and forms a very intense EMP blanket of near-uniform intensity. Max effects range can be as far as 1500nm from ground zero with high intensity. (This is why most EMP-attack scenarios in the Cold War assumed this profile. See also “GoldenEye” and “The Day After”).

b) System effects: As currently implemented only platform sensors are vulnerable to damage. Factors affecting damage probability:

  • Pulse intensity – see above.
  • Operating status: Sensors that are turned off can be affected but much less likely
  • Tech generation: Early 60s and earlier (vacuum tubes) are the most resistant, late 60s (first transistors and solid states) are more vulnerable, late 70s (VLSI) more so, and from late 80s (COTS) onwards it’s a party.

* Massive performance increases (as in up to over 10x faster) under certain “heavy” setups such as very complex radar/ECM interactions and thousands of AI-busy units.

* Significant speed improvement in scenarios with numerous underwater biological entities (whales, fish etc.).

* Tweaks to ship damage caused by torpedo hits (greater blast, more components hit).

* ADDED: Proper optimum-height-of-burst calculation for nuclear weapons against soft targets.


NEW IN v1.10

* NEW MAJOR FEATURE: Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC).
CEC takes many forms. Examples:
  • SM-6 ERAM can be launched from a surface ship and switch its datalink parent to another ship or to an orbiting E-2D.
  • AIM-120D can be launched from an aircraft and guided mid-course from an E-2D.
  • Heavy Soviet anti-ship missiles like the SS-N-3/12/19/22 can receive mid-course updates from Bear-D MPA and Hormone-B helo.
  • Weapons like the GBU-15, AGM-130, AGM-62 Walleye II ER/DL and AGM-84E SLAM can switch datalink parent in-flight.

In order for a weapon to switch datalink parent platform, both the weapon and the candidate platform must support CEC (apart from the standard requirement of having a compatible datalink). For example, an old F-15C may be able to launch an AIM-120D and provide mid-course guidance to it but is unable to act as CEC platform for other shooters.

* Tech generation is now taken into account for noise jamming (OECM). Older jammers are less effective against modern radars and vice versa (see here for example:
* Electronic-scan radars (PESAs but especially AESAs) have strong resistance against noise jamming.
* New weapon feature: SAM/ABM warhead modifiers.
Several modern SAMs with ABM capability have advanced warheads (directional-frag or Hit-To-Kill) optimized for ABM operation. These warheads were developed as a result of the Desert Storm experience, where Patriot PAC-2 missiles (with normal continous-rod warhead) would frequently impact incoming TBMs but rarely actually destroy them, usually just causing them to deviate from their trajectory. The new warheads, and especially HTKs, provide a much bigger probability of physically destroying the target missile or RV.
These characteristics are now reflected in the simulation. This is what happens when the SAM impacts the incoming missile/RV:
  • A conventional warhead has a 15% chance of outright destruction of the target, and a 30% chance of significant trajectory deviation (CEP increased by 3x). If none of these happens then the target missile/RV suffers only a minor deviation (CEP increased by 1.5x).
  • A directional-frag warhead has a 30% chance of outright destruction of the target, and a 60% chance of significant trajectory deviation (CEP increased by 3x). If none of these happens then the target missile/RV suffers only a minor deviation (CEP increased by 1.5x).
  • A HTK warhead reliably destroys the target every time.
NOTE: Trajectory deviations are cumulative, so an incoming missile/RV may be impacted multiple times by non-HTK ABMs and still survive but impact far away from its intended aimpoint (this happened in a few instances in DS).
AAW weapons with advanced warheads are also favored by AI crews in “best weapon to use” calculations, as their warheads also make them more lethal on anti-aircraft engagements.
* AI-controlled units can now perform cruise missile attacks with waypoints (where applicable). See this screenshot for example: .
Generally the closer within weapon range the target is, the more “wide” the doglegs will be, so a unit shooting at the “edge of envelope” may not do a dogleg at all (this also means the player can indirectly control the dogleg behavior by manipulating the weapon-range WRA for the weapon in question). The entire salvo follows the same course, to maintain concentration of fire. Off-axis (dogleg) release of weapons from aircraft is restricted by slipstream to 45 degrees maximum.
* Significant enhancements to unguided weapon accuracy calculations, and ship gunnery in particular:
1) The moving-target accuracy penalty (as target speed increases, accuracy errors may increase up to double) applies only for local-control mounts, e.g. a pedestal-mounted machine gun with no automated sight or a main gun that has lost its normal FC director and is used in emergency “manual” mode. Weapons that retain their FC director are assumed to easily compensate for target movement (if the TDC could do it in WW2…).
2) As more than 5 rounds in a salvo are shot, the accuracy of each shot/burst gradually increases, eventually stabilising to 33% of original CEP (against land/sea targets) and double the original PoK (against air targets) after the 25th shot. This models the ability of FC systems (particularly those with radar) to observe the errors on the first firings and adjust their aim.
For example, with an LCS shooting 100 bursts of 57mm gunfire against a target ship, the first 5 bursts use the nominal CEP and PoK values, and then accuracy starts to improve:
  • Bursts #6-#10: CEP reduced by 10%, PoK improved by 10%
  • Bursts #11-#15: CEP reduced by 20%, PoK improved by 25%
  • Bursts #16-#20: CEP reduced by 30%, PoK improved by 50%
  • Bursts #20-#25: CEP reduced by 50%, PoK improved by 75%
  • Subsequent bursts: CEP reduced by 70%, PoK improved by 100%
(This, incidentally, also means that “one pass, haul a$$” becomes even more critical for aircraft in penetrating AAA-heavy areas. If you stick around to re-attack or observe/DBA, not only do the gunners get more shots are you but each shot gets ever more likely to nail you.)
3) As range to target decreases and shots become flatter-trajectory, the silhouette of the target becomes more visible to the weapon aim rather than the flat target area. This significantly increases the probability of a direct hit. (It also makes it more imperative to control the “open fire” range through WRA rather than simply blast at maximum range.)
* Mine-hunting vessels on mine-clearing mission will now deploy their ROVs/UUVs (if any) only when they actually reach the mission area, not while they are still in transit.


NEW IN v1.11


* MAJOR NEW: Pier operations. See overview here:

To support pier operations, new ‘Withdraw’ and ‘Redeploy’ doctrine settings have been added to the AI behavior of ships/subs. These control the criteria/thresholds that the ship/sub AI will use in order to RTB (if it is underway) and re-deploy (if it is docked). The thresholds cover damage, fuel, primary attack & defence weapons. Each threshold type has several appropriate values.
[NOTE #1: The definition of primary attack/defence weapon points to the longest-ranged ASuW weapon (attack) and AAW/ASW (defence) weapon, and uses the default DB-fed values for reference. So for example if an Aegis cruiser is stocked with SM-2s on its DB-pristine version but the scen author opts to clean them out and re-stock with TLAMs and a few ESSMs, the cruiser is considered as “primary defence weapon exhausted” even though it still has the ESSMs].
[NOTE #2: The rules for picking the primary attack/defence weapon are slightly different for submarines. Hunter-killer subs (both nuclear and DE) consider torpedoes their primary weapon for both attack and defence even if they carry other longer-ranged weapons (missiles etc.). Cruise- and ballistic-missile subs however, consider their missiles their primary attack weapon.]

Docked ships/subs can re-arm from either magazines on the pier itself or ammo facilities belonging to the same group (ie. naval base) as the pier, just like with ammo bunkers on airbases.

When putting out from a pier to sea again, ships/subs first navigate to a point at the edges of the pier lane area and then re-plot for their destination.

* MAJOR NEW: Aircraft in airbases and ships/subs at naval bases can now be spotted and catalogued during a BDA/recon run. See overiew here:

* MAJOR UPDATE to the Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP) model. While it is possible to recharge the submarine’s batteries using AIP, the low power of typical AIP systems relative to the diesel-powered generators means that it would take extremely long time to recharge a deeply discharged battery. Storing energy in batteries is also a less efficient than storing the energy in the AIP reactants. As such, AIP is best used to minimize discharge of the submarine’s batteries, and wait with conventional diesel engine recharging to a time and location that is more suitable. This means the AIP system will only be able to keep up with battery drainage at creep throttle setting. At higher speeds, the electric motors will require more power than the AIP can deliver, which forces the sub to eventually snorkel.

* New and expanded submarine doctrine settings. See overview here:

* Significant changes to replenishment rates (both UNREP and pierside). The rate at which a given store can be transferred to the receiver unit is now determined by the characteristics of the item:

  • Guided weapons up to 10kg, gun & rocket rounds up to 15mm: One per second.
  • Guided weapons up to 50kg, gun & rocket rounds up to 24mm: One per 5 seconds.
  • Guided weapons up to 100kg, gun & rocket rounds up to 60mm: One per 15 seconds.
  • Guided weapons up to 150kg, gun & rocket rounds up to 80mm: One per 30 seconds.
  • Guided weapons up to 250kg, gun & rocket rounds up to 150mm: One per minute.
  • Guided weapons up to 500kg, gun & rocket rounds up to 200mm, depth charges, mines, decoys, dispensers, drop tanks, laser charges and everything else not covered: One per 5 minutes.
  • Guided weapons up to 1000kg, gun & rocket rounds up to 350mm: One per 15 minutes.
  • Guided weapons up to 2500kg, gun & rocket rounds up to 450mm: One per 30 minutes.
  • Guided weapons heavier than 2500kg, gun & rocket rounds larger than 450mm: One per hour.

The rate is further affected by the UNREP capability of the receiving unit, doubled if the provider is a land facility (stability and more equipment), and halved if the receiver is a submarine (more complicated to get anything bulky inside a sub).

* The pathfinding engine has been refined and made more performant and also user-configurable (see:

* Changed the way that facility aimpoints are affected by blast damage (tanks are a lot harder to kill with proximity blast now, while e.g. trucks are easy as ever).

* Bomblets are very likely to start fires if they impact (lots of small explosions). For the same reason they are more likely to cause component hits even if they barely scratch the target structurally.

* Units cannot perform component repairs if the unit has non-minor fire or flooding (all hands are busy!).

* Only minor component damage can be repaired while underway (the unit must dock to parent boat/pier for heavier repairs).

* The “unlimited weapons at airbases” realism option is now expanded to the more generic “unlimited base magazines”, and affects both air and naval bases. So you can use (or experiment with) pier re-arming without first having to populate ammo dumps with suitable weapon records.

* AI tweak: Targets that identified as waste of ammo (e.g. tarmac already heavily damaged [cannot be totally destroyed]) are deliberately avoided in targeting evaluations.

* Single-unit airbases can no longer be targeted (use normal multi-unit airbases if they are to be attacked).

* Added more detailed mechanics for thermobaric/FAE warheads:

  • Upon impact, this type of warhead creates an instant “killing cloud” (size is dependent on warhead weight) which detonates uniformly and creates a strong overpressure wave. The maximum damage applied is less than that on the epicenter of a conventional HE detonation, but contrary to HE (where the effective blast damage falls sharply with distance) the explosive force is applied almost the same at any point in the cloud; naturally, this makes FAE an excellent area-effect weapon against non-hardened targets. In addition, any target within the cloud suffers severe fire damage.
  • Targets outside the detonation cloud but near it can also receive blast damage, depending on their distance from the cloud border.
  • Contrary to HE and because of the way they operate, FAE warheads are highly sensitive to rain (intense storm severely degrades them) and high altitude (because they use atmospheric oxygen as the explosion oxidant, they are severely less effective at high altitudes where the air is thinner). This makes them less versatile than conventional HE warheads.

* ADDED: Nuclear detonations produce an intense but short-ranged neutron wave (this is the basis of the “enhanced radiation warhead” a.k.a. “neutron bomb”). Nuclear-tipped AAMs/SAMs use this as their primary kill mechanism against fast incoming targets (ie. missiles/RVs).




NEW IN v1.11 SR6

* Sonar model addition: Bottom-bounce mode (active sonar only). Overview here:

* AI Tweak: Mobile facility contacts have the same expiration age as surface contacts (2 hrs)

* Ship AI change: Do not adjust speed for cavitation when in simple plotted course transit.

* Weapons tweak: Weapons that impact on a set of coords first check if any target is actually there (chance of direct-hit!).

* Aircraft and aerial weapons that travel at high-supersonic and hypersonic speeds now get a substantial (linear) boost in their IR signatures (these things literally glow!)


NEW IN v1.11 SR7

* Improved parabolic & direct-flight trajectories for unguided weapons

* Ships now manouver and zig-zag to unmask the preffered mount for firing (similar to how AC-130s manouver to bring their side guns to bear). This is most easily observed on ships that cannot fire dead ahead (e.g. Perry FFG using the 76mm gun).

* Non-aircraft units can now use mission escort logic (only for strike missions for now). When assigned as escort, the unit will try to stick close to the nearest “escort subject” of the same mission and prioritize threats to it for engagement instead of actively seeking out to attack targets on its own.

* When creating an “airborne” salvo (e.g. ballistic missile firing RV), if the target is an aimpoint, assume we’re firing at an actual target contact, and that is the one nearest to the aimpoint. (Fixes issue where new salvos are mistakenly created for a target still engaged, because existing salvos regard as target the aimpoint rather than the contact sitting on it)

* Re-implemented incendiary weapons (napalm etc.). These have relatively small individual effect areas (e.g. a single Vietnam-era canister will typically cover a 25-30m radius circle), but when used en-masse they can really “remove a grid” (in artillery parlance). The effect of an incendiary explosion on a unit depends on both the unit’s size and its armor levels. Small unarmored craft (hello Boghammers!) are promptly fried, while a similarly unarmored but large ship (e.g. cruise liner) will suffer a smaller fire. Large, heavily armored units (e.g. battleships) mostly ignore such explosions.

* Gun rounds now shed speed in flight and their kinetic damage and penetration at impact are directly linked to their impact velocity (so the closer the shot, the bigger the penetration & damage).

* Sensor max-min target altitude values are now enforced in detection checks. For example, many short-range air-search radars have a specific ceiling over which they cannot detect aircraft.

* The localization logic hitherto used only by aircraft for ASW prosecutions is now also used by non-AC units for any contact type. For example a submarine who closes in on the last reported position of an uncertain contact, if it is unable to find it there, it will begin searching within the AoU to try and narrow down the target location.

* ASAT calculations are much more reliable; as a result ASAT-capable units have a lot more valid shot opportunities

* Added loiter ability for tactical decoys that have the flag


NEW IN v1.12

* Addition to passive sonar model: Target masking. When the sub/ship being detected is within X degrees bearing (relative to the sonar sensor) of another one, the (comparatively) louder one may prevent the other(s) from being detected.
(X = a given angular difference referred to as the “bearing gate”. This value decreases in more modern sonar sets (as low as 4 degrees) and increases in older ones (as high as 20 deg). To fool a modern passive sonar by masking under another vessel on the same bearing, you need to get very close to the other unit angularly).

* Significant improvements to automatic flight plan generator
* Misc tweaks to tanker & bingo calculations
* Mine navigation updates

NEW IN v1.13

* Improvement in weapon terminal dive logic (Dive to the estimated intercept point, NOT the current target location)
* Adjustment: CAPTOR mines do not trigger on ROVs, biologics and false contacts
* Revised sonobuoy drop spacing
* Lofted AAW missiles (AMRAAM, SM-2, AIM-7F/M etc.) now adjust their loft ceiling depending on the distance to estimated intercept point. This prevents very sharp “rise up, dive down” trajectory profiles that can cause problems with endgame guidance.
* Various improvements to mission-planning AI.
* Reworked underwater detonation mechanics; at depths shallower than 600m, the nuclear fireball may break the surface and also affect nearby facilities and aircraft.
* Improved parabolic arc logic for lofted weapons
* Sonar tweak: For mask calcs, ignore non-operative units
* Refinements: Patrol/support mission 1/3 rule for aircraft
* Oblique/crossing shots in anti-missile engagements now suffer depending on impact angle (PH halved at worst case)
* Added a number of tweaks to detailed aircraft damage:
– Planes with a pressurized cabin instantly disintegrate if they have fuselage penetration. (Pressurized cabins are used by commercial aircraft and certain large military aircraft such as AEW, SIGINT etc., and only at altitudes above 12000 feet).
– There is now a chance of loss of flight controls (if the fuselage is penetrated). The chance is directly relevant to damage yield inflicted (the more powerful, the more likely). Loss of flight controls instantly destroys the aircraft.
– Modern AAW missiles with advanced fuzes get more effective “applied” damage (their nominal DP value is multiplied). This effect starts from the late 1970s and gradually increases for each successive tech generation. As an example, late-1980s weapons get a 15% improvement and early-2010s weapons get a 40% improvement over nominal. (So very modern weapons even with a miniscule warhead can still cause tremendous damage).
– Weapons with kinetic warheads (e.g. PAC-3 ERINT, or solid-shot gun shells) deliver their full kinetic energy upon impact. This can be very large (PAC-3 delivers nearly 100 DPs of KE), so usually a single hit is fatal.
* Nav tweak: Check for obstacles between current position and next waypoint even if it’s a pathfinding waypoint